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Chemistry Project Reports on the Diffusion of Solids in Liquids

The Diffusion of Solids in Liquids

 

Introduction

When things are begun in meeting with all separate, they combine with each other. This happening is known as diffusion. Diffusion exerts place very rapidly in case of gases, to a lesser extent in case of liquids, and not at all in the case of solids. However, diffusion of solids in liquids does take place, albeit at a very slow rate.

If a solid is kept in contact with an excess of solvent in which it is soluble, some piece of the solid gets melted. This process is known as dissolution of a solid in liquid, and it takes place due to the diffusion of solid particles into the liquid medium.

Molecules of solute are in constant random motion due to the collision between molecules of solute and that of the solvent. It is this physical interaction between solute-solvent particles that leads to diffusion.

 

Objective

To demonstrate that rate of diffusion depends upon the following factors:

Temperature: As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the particles increases. Thus, the speed of particles also increases, which in turn increases the rate of diffusion.

Size of the particle: As the size of particle increases, the rate of diffusion decreases. This is because the particles become less mobile in the solvent.

Mass of the particle: As the mass of the particle increases, the rate of diffusion decreases; as the particle becomes less mobile.

Experiment 1

To study diffusion when copper sulphate is brought into contact with water (liquid).

Requirements

Copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals, 100 mL beaker

Procedure

  1. Take about two grams of copper sulphate crystals in 100 mL beaker.
  2. Add about 50 mL of water and allow it to stand for few minutes.
  3. Note the development of blue color in the water.
  4. Allow standing further till it is observed that all copper sulphate disappears.
  5. Note the blue color change in water.

Conclusion

When solids such as copper sulphate are brought into contact with liquids such as water, the intermingling of substances, i.e., diffusion takes place.

Experiment 2

To study the effect of temperature on the rate of diffusion of solids in liquids.

Requirements

Copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals, three 100 mL beakers, watch glass, wire gauge, burner, tripod stand, thermometer, stopwatch.

Procedure

  1. Take five gram of copper sulphate each in three beakers.
    Pour 100 mL of distilled water slowly in one of the beakers.
    Cover this beaker with a watch glass.
  2. Pour 100 mL of cold water into a second beaker slowly.
  3. Place a third beaker containing 100 mL of water on a tripod stand for heating.
  4. Observe the diffusion process which begins in all the beakers.
  5. Record of copper sulphate the time taken for the dissolution of copper sulphate in all the three cases.

 

Observations

Sr. No. Temperature of Water Time Taken to
Diffuse
1 10 °C 18 minutes
2 25 °C 15 minutes
3 70 °C 7 minutes

Conclusion

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the order as given below:

Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1

Therefore,

Experiment 3

To study the influence of the size of particles on the rate of diffusion of solids in liquids.

Requirements

Graduated 100 mL measuring cylinders, copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals of different sizes, stopwatch.

Procedure

  1. Add 50 mL of water to each of the three cylinders.
  2. Take five gram each of big size, medium size, small size crystals of copper sulphate, and add them separately in three cylinders.
  3. Allow for them to stand for some time.
  4. Note the time taken for the blue color to reach any fixed mark in each of the cylinders and note the observations.

Observations

Sr. No. Crystal size Time Taken to Diffuse
1 Big 19 minutes
2 Medium 13 minutes
3 Small 5 minutes

Conclusion

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the order as given below:

Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1

So, smaller particles undergo diffusion more quickly than bigger particles.

Result

  1. When solids such as copper sulphate are brought into contact with liquids such as water, the intermingling of substances, i.e., diffusion takes place.
  2. The rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.
  3. Small particles undergo diffusion more quickly than bigger particles.

 

 

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