Food Adulteration Project
Adulterants in food
Adulteration in food, as a rule, is available in its most rough frame denied substances are either included or somewhat or completely substituted. Often, the contamination/ pollution in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessness and lack of the proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation and marketing.
This at last outcomes that the buyer is either swindled or regularly turned into a casualty of ailments.Such types of contamination are quite common in developing countries or backward countries. It is equally essential for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health.
To prevent the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent practices.
To prevent the public from poisonous and harmful foods
To prevent the sale of substandard foods
The growing number of food farmers and the unusual amount of import foodstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers.
To differentiate those who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food contamination is very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. So we need simple screening, tests for their detection.
In the past few decades, contamination of food has become one of the severe problems. Consumption of contaminated food causes severe diseases like cancer, diarrhea, asthma, ulcers, etc. A majority share of fats, oils, and spread are paraffin wax, castor oil, and hydrocarbons. Red bean stew powder is blended with black powder and pepper is blended with dried papaya seeds. Simple chemical tests can easily identify These adulterants.
AGMARK – acronym for agrarian advertising this association ensures nourishment items for their quality. Its goal is to advance the Grading and Standardization of farming and partnered items.
Several agencies .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from foodstuff.
Adulterants in oil, butter, and fat.
REQUIREMENTS : Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic acid, conc. HNO3.
These are detected as follows :
(i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee.
Droplets of oil swimming on the surface of remaining acetic anhydride unusual the appearance of wax or hydrocarbons when some Flame apply the small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride.
(ii) Adulteration of dyes in fat
Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of concentrated Sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Presence of red color indicates the presence of dye in fat.
(iii) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils
Take a small amount of oil in a test-tube, add some drops of concentrated HNO3 and shake. Presence of red color in the acid layer indicates the presence of argemone oil.
Adulterants in sugar
REQUIREMENTS: Test-tubes, dilute HCl.
(i) Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar
Take the small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dilute HCl. Active bubbling of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar.
(ii) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar
Take the small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water, but insoluble impurities do not disappear.
Adulterants in samples of chili powder.
REQUIREMENTS: Test-tubes, dilute HNO3.
PROCEDURE: Procedure to detected as follows.
(i) Contamination of red lead salts in chili powder
Take the sample of chili powder, add dilute HNO3. Filter the solution and add two drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. Confirms the presence of lead salts in chili powder.
(ii) Contamination of brick powder in red chili powder
Take a small amount of given red chili powder in a beaker containing water. Brick powder sinks at the bottom while pure chili powder floats over water.
(iii) Contamination of Oil soluble coal tar color in red chili powder.
Use two grams of the samples in a test tube, add few ml of solvent ether and shake, Decant ether layer into a test tube containing 2ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid. Shake it; the lower acid layer will be colored distinct pink to the red indicating presence of oil soluble color.
Adulterants in samples of pepper.
(i) Contamination of dried papaya seeds in pepper
Take a sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while unadulterated pepper settles at the base.
(ii)Contamination of Coated including mineral oil seeds in pepper
Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives a Kerosene-like smell.
(iii) Contamination of Light black pepper in pepper.
Swim the sample of black pepper in alcohol (rectified spirit). The ripe black pepper berries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float.
Adulterants in samples of turmeric powder.
REQUIREMENTS: Test-tubes, conc. HCl.
PROCEDURE: Procedure is detected as follows.
(i) Contamination of yellow lead salts into turmeric powder
Take a sample of turmeric powder adds concentrated HCl. The appearance of magenta color shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder.
(ii)Contamination of Chalk or yellow soapstone powder to turmeric powder
Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test tube containing a small amount of water. Add a few drops of concentrated HCl; effervescence will indicate the presence of chalk or yellow soapstone powder.
(iii)Contamination of Starch maize, wheat, tapioca, rice to turmeric powder
A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow colored, big and has an angular structure.
Tests for food Adulteration:
|1||Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee||Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride
indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon.
|Appearance of oil floating on the
|2||Adulteration of dyes
|Heat 1mL of fat with a
mixture of 1mL of conc. H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid.
|Appearance of pink colour.|
|3||Adulteration of argemone oil in edible
|To small amount of oil in a
test tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 & shake.
|No red colour
|4||Adulteration of various insoluble
substances in sugar
|Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water.||Pure sugar dissolves in water
impurities do not dissolve.
|5||Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda
|To small amount of sugar in a test tube, add a few drops of dil. HCl.||No brisk effervescence observed.|
|6||Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder||To sample of turmeric
powder, add conc. HCl.
|Appearance of magenta colour|
|7||Adulteration of Metanil Yellow colour in turmeric powder||Take 1/4th of teaspoon of Turmeric Powder in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol in it. Shake the tube thoroughly to mix up the contents. Add 10 drops of Muratic Acid or Hydrochloric Acid in the test tube.||A pink colouration indicates the presence of Metanil Yellow colour in the Turmeric Powder.|
|8||Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder||To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the
solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate.
|No yellow ppt.|
|9||Adulteration of brick powder in chilli powder||Add small amount of given red chilli powder in a beaker containing water.||Brick powder settles
at the bottom while
pure chilli powder floats over water.
|10||Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper||Add small amount of sample
of pepper to beaker containing water and stir
with a glass rod.
|Dried papaya seeds being lighter float
over water while
pure pepper settles at the bottom.
|11||Adulteration of Scorched Persimmon stones in COFFEE POWDER||Take 1 teaspoon of the coffee powder and spread it on a moisturized blotting paper. Pour 3 ml of 2% Aqueous Solution of Sodium Carbonate slowly and carefully on it.||A red coloration indicates the presence of the powder of Scorched Persimmon Stones in the Coffee Powder.|
|12||Adulteration of Argemone seed in Mustard seed||Mustard seeds have a smooth surface. But argemone seed have rough surface and are black and hence can be separated out.||When Mustard seed is pressed inside it is yellow while for argemone seed it is white.|
|13||Adulteration of Soap stone or other earthy matter in Hinge||Shake little portion of the sample with water and allow to settle.||Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle down at the bottom.|
|14||Adulteration Rhodamine B colour in Sweet Potato||Take a cotton piece soaked in Liquid Paraffin, and rub the outer red surface of the sweet potato.||If the cotton absorbs colour, it indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.|
|15||Adulteration Water in Milk||On a marble piece put a drop of milk with water and another drop of milk without water (for comparison).||Keep the marble in a slanted position, the milk containing water moves downward faster as compared to milk with water.|
|16||Adulteration Sodium Bicarbonate in Milk||Take 3 ml of the milk in a test tube. Add 10 drops of rosalic acid solution.||The rosy coloration indicates the presence of sodium bicarbonate in the milk.|
The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being served under unsanitary conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in dirty situations should be circumvented. It is always better to buy certified food from the reputed shop.
It is not possible to ensure healthy eating only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level.Collection of nutritious and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. However, visual inspection of the food before purchase makes sure to provide an absence of insects, optic fungus, foreign matters, etc. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use.
Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on a packed diet is crucial for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value.