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A diode is also known as a device that exclusively permits unidirectional flow of current if the diode operated at a particular voltage level. Diodes only block current in the reverse direction whereas the reverse voltage is within a restricted vary and if not backward barrier breaks and conjointly the energy at that this breakdown happens termed reverse breakdown voltage. The diode pretends the role of a valve between the electronic and device. This particular behaviour of the diode that behaves or work as an ideal short circuit once it’s in forward biased and acts or work as a complete electrical circuit once it’s among the reverse biased. So a specified arrangement of diodes can convert AC to pulsing DC, and hence, its process is known as a rectifier. A word diode comes from “diode” which means a tool had two electrodes.


Symbol of a diode shown below:

Symbol of a Diode

Working principle of a diode:


Unbiased diode

N-side will have an essential variable of electrons and intensely few holes whereas the p aspect will have a more concentration of holes and intensely few particles. Because of this, a technique remarked as diffusion takes place. Throughout this methodology, free electrons which are from n aspect will spread into the p aspect and recombine with holes present there, and leaves positive immobile ions in n aspect and creating negative immobile ions in p aspect of the diode. Hence, there will be uncovered positive donor ions in an n-type point near the junction edge. Similarly, there will be revealed negative acceptor ions in p-type aspect near the junction side. Due to which numbers of positive ions and negative ions will accumulate on n side and p side severally. That region which formed is termed as depletion region because of the “depletion” of free carriers between the region. Due to this presence of positive ions and negative ions, a static field mentioned as barrier potential created across the PN junction of the diode. It’s declared as “barrier potential” as a conclusion of it plays the role of a barrier and opposes the extra movement of holes and electrons across the junction.


Forward biased diode

In a very PN junction diode, once the forward voltage applied that is, a positive terminal of a source connected to the p aspect, and conjointly the negative terminal of the availability is connected to the n-type element, the diode is speculated to be in forward biased condition. There is a barrier potential across the junction. This barrier potential conducted among the alternative of the forward connected voltage. So a diode can individually transform current to flow between forwarding direction once forward applied voltage is over barrier potential of the junction. The presented Voltage is called Forward Biased Voltage.


Reverse biased diode

A diode is said to be in reverse biased, which is nothing but the positive terminal of the availability is connected to the n-type finish, and conjointly the negative terminal of the availability is attached to the p-type finish of the diode. Although, there is a little current flowing from n-type finish to p-type finish among the diode as a result of minority carriers. This little present is termed reverse saturation current. Minority carriers are within the central thermally generated holes and electrons in semiconductor device and semiconductor device severally. Currently, if reverse applied voltage across the diode is usually established, then once bound applied voltage the depletion layer will destroy that is ready to cause a massive reverse current to flow through the diode. If this electricity is not externally restricted and it reaches the far aspect the safe worth, the diode might even permanently stopped. The could be as a result of because the reverse voltage can increase, the energy of the charge carriers, i.e. minority charge carriers to boot will increase. When the fast electrons bit the alternative atoms among the device to knock-off some lots of electrons from them. The electrons, consequently, discharged to boot unleash rather additional electrons from the particles by breaking the valence bonds. This process is termed as carrier reproducing and finally ends up in a very substantial increment in the flow of current through the contact. The associated development is known as Avalanche Breakdown.


Different types of a diode:

There are different forms of diodes, and those are details below:

  1.  Light emitting diode
  2. Avalanche diode
  3. Laser diode
  4. PIN diode
  5. Photodiode
  6. Schottky diode
  7. Varactor diode
  8. Tunnel diode
  9. P-N junction diode
  10. Zener diode





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