The outer space has every time enchanted people on the earth and the exchange of information through area developed as an offshoot of suggestions for the space travel. The old idea of availing artificial satellites to exchange information was found in a science fiction called Brick Moon which was published by the Evert Hale in the year of 1869-70.
History of the satellite communication:
The Merriam-Webster is a satellite that evenly body orbiting other heavenly or celestial bodies of larger size, or it is a vehicle intended for the earth, or it is a vehicle designed to orbit the moon. The present-day satellite communication can trace their starting point sources or causes all the way back to February, and in the year of 1945, the first artificial satellite used alone to the further developments in the global communications was a balloon by the name ECHO1, and the NASA launched it.
There was an idea behind a satellite used for the communication is simple and, i.e. initially we need to transmit the information into space and beam it back to the ground to another spot on the earth. The first American satellite to relay the exchange of information was the project SCORE in the year of 1958and this used, a tape recorder to save and send the voice messages. The first communication satellite was the sputnik1, and it launched by the Soviet Union on October 4 and in the year of 1957.
The Telstar was the second satellite used for the relay communications, and the NASA launched it in July, and the year of 1962, the Telstar was introduced from the Cape Canaveral. The first satellite to broadcast across the peaceful area satellite by name Relay1 and it was ejected on December 13 and in the year of 1962. One other satellite name Syncom2 moved originated in the year of 1963.
Types of Satellite Orbits:
There are four unique types of orbits employed by the new satellites, and they are as below:
• Geostationary orbit (GEO)
• Low earth orbit (LEO)
• Medium earth orbit (MEO)
• Molniya orbit
1. Geostationary orbit – If an observer on the earth observes the satellite in the geosynchronous orbit, then the spacecraft looks stable because the moon revolves around the planet. The geostationary satellite is useful in exchanging the information because the antenna on the ground can demanded at the satellite without tracking the motion of the spacecraft. The first geostationary satellite was the Syncom3, and it was launched on 19th of August and in the year of 1964.
2. Low earth orbit – A flat earth of orbit is in a circular orbit about 200 meters above the surface of the planet, and it corresponds about 90 minutes to revolve around the planet. The orbit of a satellite in the low earth orbit is less costly to originate when connected with the satellites in the geostationary orbit. The Globalstar and Iridium are the twp satellite constellations the aimed to furnish satellite phone services to the remote areas.
3. Medium earth orbit: The satellites of medium earth orbit lies between 8000 km to 18000 km above the surface of the earth. The moons of medium earth orbit work in a similar manner like the satellites of low earth orbit.
4. Molniya satellites: The geostationary satellites have the receivers & equator and at the horizon gets the low signal as it is far away from the equator. So, to solve this query, the Molniya orbit satellites are launched.
The Services about the Satellites is
1. In the field of transmission like T.V. and transfer of information, mail done via satellites.
2. The satellites furnish the service of whether survey and also used in the military applications.
More services provided by the satellites are as follows:
1. Meteorological satellite service
2. Fixed satellite service
3. Broadcast satellite service
4. Navigational satellite service
5. Mobile satellite service
Advantages Satellite Communication:
• It has high channel capacity along with low error rates.
• It has the stable cost environment and covers a wide area.
Disadvantages Satellite Communication:
• The launching of the satellite is very costly.
• It requires expensive ground stations.
• It has limited frequency spectrum and orbital space.
• It requires constant monitoring from the ground.