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Project Report on Electromagnetic Induction (e.m.f.)

Physics project for class 12 on electromagnetic induction


Electromagnetic Induction: In 1831 Michael Faraday found the impact called “Electromagnetic Induction” simply examine the attractive power of the electric current.

At the point when a loop made of copper wire is set inside an attractive field, the attractive transition is identified with the curl. Faraday found that when the attractive motion connected with the curl is connected, an electric current begins moving through the loop, gave the loop is met one. The current and e.m.f. So created are called prompted present and instigated e.m.f. The prompted current and the e.m.f. in the curl keep going just inasmuch as the attractive transition connected with the loop continues evolving.

In this manner, electromagnetic Induction is the marvel of generation of electric current (or e.m.f.) in a loop when the attractive motion connected with the curl is turned.

A relationship exists between an electrical voltage and a fluctuating attractive field to which Michael Faraday’s acclaimed law of electromagnetic Induction expresses: “that a voltage is initiated in a circuit at whatever point relative movement exists between a transmitter and an attractive field and that the size of this voltage is corresponding to the rate of progress of the transition”.


Faraday’s Law of Induction

As such, Electromagnetic Induction is the way toward utilizing attractive fields to deliver voltage, and in a shut circuit, a current.

So how much voltage (emf) can be prompted by the loop utilizing just attraction. All things considered, this is controlled by the accompanying three distinct variables.

1). Expanding the quantity of turns of wire in the curl – By expanding the number of individual conveyors slicing through the attractive field, the measure of prompted emf delivered will be the whole of all the diverse circles of the loop, so if there are 20 hands over the loop there will be 20 times more instigated emf than in one bit of wire.

2). Expanding the speed of the relative movement between the loop and the magnet – If a similar curl of wire went through the same attractive field, yet its speed or speed is expanded, the wire will cut the lines of motion at a quicker rate so more initiated emf would be delivered.

3). Expanding the quality of the attractive field – If a similar curl of wire is moved at a similar speed through a more grounded attractive region, there will be more emf delivered in light of the fact that there are more lines of power to cut.

Faraday’s Test

The accompanying test performed by Faraday prompted the revelation of the electromagnetic enlistment.

At the point when the quality of the attractive field fluctuates:

Think about two curl P and S twisted on an iron bar. The iron pole is appended to galvanometer, battery and tapping key. When tapping key is squeezed and when it is discharged galvanometer demonstrates redirection demonstrating the nearness of actuated current.

Clarification: When the tapping key is squeezed then attractive transition connected with the loop S changed in light of increment in the attractive field of curl P and created current is delivered and when it is discharged attractive motion is again modified and impacted current is created. Be that as it may, when the tapping key is kept squeezed then the attractive transition connected with curl don’t change and instigated current does not give, so galvanometer demonstrates no avoidance.

Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Enlistment :

The consequences of Faraday’s trial on electromagnetic acceptance are known as “Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Enlistment.” These are expressed as underneath :

1. At whatever point attractive transition connected with a circuit (a circle of wire or a loop or an electric circuit when all is said in done) changes, actuated e.m.f. is created.

2. The prompted e.m.f. Endures as long as the change in attractive transition persistent.

3. The size of prompted e.m.f. is specifically corresponding to the rate of progress of attractive transition connected with the circuit.

Lenz’s Manage :

Lenz’s administer is an advantageous technique to decide the course of instigated current delivered in the circuit.

Lenz’s law expresses that the incited current delivered in a circuit dependably streams in such a bearing, to the point that it contradicts the change or cause that give it.

Give us now a chance to apply Lenz’s law to discover the heading of the stream of initiated current in the circuit.

On pressing the key, the current in the loop P streams the clockwise way and attractive lines of power move guided from left to right. At that point, attractive transition connected with the loop S changed. The course of instigated current ought to be to such an extent that it ought to contradict the heading of the stream of attractive field lines. So actuated current in the loop S is toward the path inverse to the attractive field in P. Consequently, the bearing of incited current in loop S is from ideal to left. So initiated current in loop S should stream an anticlockwise way.



The character of Motional e.m.f. :

Look at that as a uniform attractive field B limited to the area PQRS and a curl ABCD is situated inside the attractive field. The course of attractive field is opposite to the plane of the curl and the internal way.

Think about that whenever t, the part BA’ = Compact disc’ = x(say) of the curl inside the attractive field. In the event that l is the length of the arm BC of the curl, the zone of the loop inside the attractive field whenever t.

A = BCX Disc’ = lx

In this way attractive transition connected with the curl whenever t.

f = BA = Blx

Assume that the loop is hauled out of the attractive field with speed n. As the curl is hauled out attractive transition connected with the loop changes. The time rate of progress of attractive transition associated with the curl is given by

If e is induced e.m.f. produced, then

e = -Bln

The negative sign shows that induced e.m.f. Opposes to the coil being pulled out of the magnetic field.


Mutual Induction :

Think about two coil P and S are set near each other. Coil P comprises a battery and tapping key and loop S comprises of galvanometer G. At the point when the key of coil P is squeezed then the attractive transition is building an incited e.m.f. Delivered in it contradicts the stream of attractive motion. Since coil P and loop S are near each other. So attractive transition additionally changed in coil S and actuated current is delivered which contradicts the heading of the stream of attractive lines of power in loop P.


The wonder as per which a restricting e.m.f. is created in a coil because of the adjustment in present or attractive transition connected with a nearby loop is called common induction.


The coefficient of Shared Induction :

Assume that present I am coursing through loop P and f be the attractive transition connected to coil S

F a I

f = MI


M = Coefficient of mutual induction.

Let e be the induced e.m.f. in coil S.

e – (-ive sign shows opposition of induced e.m.f.)

M = e /


The mutual inductance of two coils is said to be one Henry, if a rate of change of current of 1 ampere per second in one coil induces an e.m.f. of 1 volt in neighboring coil.


Self Induction

Consider a coil associated with a battery and a tapping key. At the point when key K is squeezed attractive lines of powers began developing through it and incited e.m.f. is delivered. The bearing of incited e.m.f. is inverse to that of development of current. Then again when the key has discharged the current in the coil diminishes and e.m.f. is created the other way. In this way amid both development and rot of current an inverse instigated e.m.f. is created. This e.m.f. is gotten back to e.m.f.


The wonder as per which a contradicting actuated e.m.f. is delivered in the coil because of the adjustment in present or attractive transition connected with the coil is called self-enlistment.


The coefficient of Self Induction:

Assume when the key is squeezed, the present I move through the coil and attractive motion f connected with the coil.


f a I

f = MI

L is called coefficient of self-induction.

Let e be the induced e.m.f.

e =

e = (-ive sign shows opposing nature of induced e.m.f.)

M = e /


The self-inductance of a coil is said to be one Henry if a rate of change of current of 1 ampere per second induces an e.m.f. of one volt.


Eddy Currents :

Eddy currents are the currents instigated in a conductor when set in a changing attractive field. They are otherwise called Foucault Currents.

Following analysis clarify the source of eddy currents. Present a delicate iron center inside a solenoid and associate it to the wellspring of exchanging current. Place a metallic plate over the delicate iron center.

Clarification: When the circuit is turned on the present begins developing and henceforth attractive motion connected with circle likewise increments. This plate is changed over to the little magnet. In the event that delicate iron’s upper face gains north extremity. At that point metallic plate’s lower surface obtains north extremity and because of appalling power metallic circle put over the delicate iron center is hurled into the air.

Use of Eddy Currents :


1. Bum Galvanometers :

The wavering of a moving curl galvanometer sets aside a long opportunity to cease to exist. Be that as it may, by winding its curl on a metallic casing made of copper or aluminum, the galvanometer can be made a bum. It is on the grounds that because of the generation of eddy currents in a metallic casing. The loop of galvanometer stops soon.

2. Speedometer :

In speedometer, a little magnet is outfitted to the principle shaft of the vehicle. The magnet is mounted in an aluminum barrel with the assistance of hairsprings. Because of pivot of magnet eddy currents are delivered which drove the drum to restrict the movement of relating magnet drum encounter torque and gets diverted at a specific point.

3. Electric Brakes :

A metallic drum is joined to the wheels of the prepare; with the goal that when prepare turns drum additionally pivots. To stop the prepare attractive field is connected to pivoting drum. The eddy currents delivered contradict the movement of drum. Since drum is associated with wheels of the prepare, it stops.






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