Physics Project Report on Solar Energy into Electrical Energy
WHAT IS SOLAR ENERGY
Simply, Solar energy is energy generated by the sun.
Other words Energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the Sun; especially that part of this energy that is transformed into usable thermal or electrical energy by man.
The energy, heat, and light from the sun flow away in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR).
The electromagnetic spectrum exists as waves of different frequencies and wavelengths. The rate of a stream represents how many times the wave repeats itself in a particular unit of time. Waves with very short wavelengths repeat themselves several times in a given group of the time, so they are high-frequency. In contrast, low-frequency waves have much longer wavelengths.
In scientific language, Solar energy is created by nuclear fusion that takes place in the sun. Fusion occurs when protons of hydrogen atoms violently collide in the sun’s core and fuse to create a helium atom.
HOW ITS WORKS
Allow the sun light to fall on the cell, the voltmeter shows deflection. Now increase the sunlight with the help of concave mirror. The deflection in voltmeter also increase. This shows that efficiency is also more, the production of electricity is also more. Shield the cell so that sun light does not fall on it. There will be no deflection. Hence with the help of sunlight we can convert solar energy into electrical energy.
- Natural Solar Energy
- Greenhouse Effect
The infrared, visible, and UV waves that reach the Earth take part in the process of warming the planet and making life possible—the so-called “greenhouse effect.”
About 30% of the solar energy that reaches Earth is reflected back into space. The rest is consumed by Earth’s atmosphere. The radiation warms the Earth’s surface, and the surface radiates some of the energy back out in the form of infrared waves. As they rise through the atmosphere, they are formed by greenhouse gases, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide.
Greenhouse gases trap the heat that reflects back up into the atmosphere. In this way, they act like the glass walls of a greenhouse. This greenhouse effect keeps the Earth warm enough to sustain life.
Almost all life on Earth relies on solar energy for food, either directly or indirectly.
Producers rely directly on solar energy. They absorb sunlight and convert it into nutrients through a process called photosynthesis. Producers, also called Autotrophs, include plants, algae, bacteria, and fungi. Autotrophs are the foundation of the food web.
Consumers rely on producers for nutrients. Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and detritivores rely on solar energy indirectly. Herbivores eat plants and other producers. Carnivores and omnivores eat both producers and herbivores. Detritivores decompose plant and animal matter by consuming it.
Photosynthesis is also responsible for all of the fossil fuels on Earth. Scientists estimate that about 3 billion years ago, the first autotrophs evolved in aquatic settings. Sunlight allowed plant life to thrive and develop. After the autotrophs died, they decomposed and shifted penetrating into the Earth, sometimes thousands of meters. This process continued for millions of years.
Under intense pressure and high temperatures, these remains became what we know as fossil fuels. Microorganisms became petroleum, natural gas, and coal.
People have developed processes for extracting these fossil fuels and using them for energy. However, fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource. They take millions of years to form.
How do solar panels convert the Sun’s energy into electricity?
The solar panels are made of solar cells. A cell is a small disk of a semiconductor like silicon. The wire attaches them to a circuit. As light strikes the semiconductor, light is transformed into electricity that flows through the line. As soon as the light is removed, the solar cell stops producing power.
The main advantage of using solar energy is that it is a renewable resource. We will have a steady, limitless supply of sunlight for another 5 billion years.
Solar energy is clean. After the solar technology equipment is constructed and put in place, solar energy does not need fuel to work. It also does not emit greenhouse gases or toxic materials. Using solar energy can drastically reduce the impact we have on the environment.
There are locations where solar energy is practical. Homes and buildings in areas with high amounts of sunlight and low cloud cover have the opportunity to harness the sun’s abundant energy.
Solar cookers provide an excellent alternative to cooking with wood-fired stoves—on which 2 billion people still rely. Solar cookers produce a cleaner and safer way to sanitize water and cook food.
Solar energy complements other renewable sources of energy, such as wind or hydroelectric energy.
Homes or businesses that install successful solar panels can produce excess electricity. These homeowners or business owners can sell energy back to the electric provider, reducing or even eliminating power bills.
The main deterrent to using solar energy is the required equipment. Solar technology equipment is expensive. Purchasing and installing the equipment can cost tens of thousands of dollars for individual homes. Although the government often offers reduced taxes to people and businesses using solar energy, and the technology can eliminate electricity bills, the initial cost is too steep for many to consider.
Solar energy equipment is also difficult. To retrofit or install solar panels on the rooftop of a building, the roof must be strong, large, and oriented toward the sun’s path.
Both active and passive solar technology depends on factors that are out of our control, such as climate and cloud cover. Local areas must be studied to determine whether or not solar power would be sufficient in that area.
Sunlight must be abundant and consistent with solar energy to be an efficient choice. In most places on Earth, sunlight’s variability makes it difficult to implement as the only source of energy.
Projects on Solar Energy
1. INDUSTRIAL USES OF SOLAR POWER. Welding helmets. Remote systems. Water circulations. Self-powered sensors.
2. SOLAR ENERGY THE ULTIMATE RENEWABLE RESOURCE
3. ENERGY FROM THE SUN IS ABUNDANT
4. INDIA’S SOLAR PROFILE. India has emerged as the worlds number one, along with the United States, in annual solar power generation. McKinsey & Company.
5. WHAT IS SOLAR ENERGY? Photovoltaic. Energy produced by (solar) panel the sun. Clean , renewable source of energy. Harnessed by solar collection methods such as the solar cell. Converted into usable Sun and energy such as electrical power electricity. lines Set of solar panels
6. SOLAR CELLS ARE CONVERTERS OF ENERGY… Light energy Solar cells are devices that take light energy as input and convert it into electrical energy Electrical energy (carried through wires)Solar cell – converts light energy to electricity
7. WHAT ARE SOLAR PANELS?• Solar panels collect heat energy from the sun. We call this heat solar thermal energy. A simple example of a solar panel is a closed box with a top made of a transparent material such as glass or plastic. In some cases the inside of the box is painted black so that it absorbs more heat.
8. HOW SOLAR ENERGY PANEL WORKS..? Generate electricity direct from sunlight.. 2 Main types: Single crystal silicon (Traditional) • Widespread • Expensive to manufacture Fragile, rigid, thick Dye-sensitized solar cells • Thin, lightweight, flexible • Inexpensive and simple to complete.
9. MANY USES OF SOLAR ENERGY. Solar panels to heat air. Solar panels to heat water. Solar electric power generation. Industrial uses. Vehicles were running on solar power. Heating living spaces. Practical applications through solar cookers
10. SOLAR PANELS TO HEAT AIR… • A transparent top is attached to a box. The box has an inlet pipe for cool air. The cool air can be pushed into the box using a fan. The cool air moves through the inlet pipe into the box. Inside the box the air is warmed by the heat energy from the sun rays.
11. SOLAR PANELS TO HEAT WATER…• Solar panels that are designed to heat water work almost the same way as ones designed to heat air.
12. SOLAR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION….• Thanks to the technology of photovoltaic cells, it is now possible to convert energy from the sun directly into electricity that can be used in the home. With solar electric systems, you can enjoy free, inexhaustible, renewable power that is environment friendly as well.
14. VEHICLES ON SOLAR POWER…• Solar cars depend on PV cells to convert sunlight into electricity to drive electric motors. Unlike solar thermal energy which saves solar energy to heat, PV cells directly convert sunlight into Ned, constructed in 1999 by the South Australian Solar Car Consortium, electricity. Speed up to 120 km/h.
15. HEATING LIVING SPACES….. • A passively heated home uses about 60- 75% of the solar energy that hits its walls and windows.
16. OTHER APPLICATIONS…. Calculators. Solar security system Cam. Solar watches. Charging phones
17. Disadvantages of Solar Energy. High initial capital outlay. Dubious reliability. Availability of sunlight. Polluting materials used in solar panels.
CONCLUSION• The Sun provides a very abundant supply of energy that is available to all of us. This energy from the Sun is completely underused. If we covered only 4% of the worlds desert area with solar panels, this would supply the same as all the worlds electricity today. Considering how much we rely on fossil fuels this is far underutilized. Solar energy from the Sun is available almost anywhere on the planet. Though it is not always available depending on the obvious weather conditions and time of day. It could drastically change the way we make energy. Especially combined with other forms of renewable energy such as wind energy.