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Biology Project Reports on HIV A.I.D.S.

 

Project Report on HIV A.I.D.S.

ABOUT HIV AIDS

What Is HIV?

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.

Your immune system is your body’s defense system. There are many kinds of viruses can be controlled by the immune system, HIV is the disease that targets and infects the same immune system cells that are supposed to protect us from germs and illnesses. These cells are a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells (sometimes called T-cells).

In most cases not possible that without medicine to control the virus, HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into factories that produce thousands of copies of the virus. As the virus makes copies, it damages or kills the CD4 cells, reducing the immune system. This is how HIV causes AIDS.

Many different strains of HIV are grouped into two main types:

HIV-1: most common type worldwide
HIV-2: found mostly in West Africa, Asia, and Europe

It is possible for one person living with HIV to carry several different strains of HIV in their body at one time.

What Is AIDS?

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.

HIV causes AIDS by attacking CD4 cells, which the immune system uses to protect the body from disease. When the immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop dangerous, often deadly, infections. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs).

What Is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS?

You do not have AIDS as soon as you acquire HIV. You can live with HIV (be HIV+) for many years with no signs of disease, or only mild-to-moderate symptoms. People living with HIV and taking HIV drugs as prescribed have a very low risk of progressing to AIDS. In any case, without treatment, HIV will, in the long run, wear out the immune framework in a great many people to the point that they have little quantities of CD4 cells and create shrewd diseases. Without treatment, this more often than not occurs in five to ten years.

The meaning of AIDS was established before there was a viable treatment for HIV. It indicated that a person was at higher risk for illness or death. In countries where HIV treatment is readily available, AIDS is no longer as relevant as it once was. This is because having access to effective therapy means people can stay healthier even with low CD4 counts. Also, someone could have received the AIDS diagnosis years ago, which means they still have that diagnosis–even though they no longer have a low CD4 count.

How Do I Know If I Have HIV?

Most people cannot tell that they have been exposed to, or have acquired, HIV. Initial or acute symptoms of HIV infection may show up within two to four weeks of exposure to HIV, and can include:

Fever
Swollen glands
Sore throat
Night Sweats
Muscle aches
Headache
Extreme tiredness
Rash

Why Should I Get Tested?

If you test HIV+, there are sufficient medications to help you stay well. These treatments are also part of HIV prevention. When a person living with HIV is taking HIV drugs and their viral load (amount of HIV in their blood) has reached undetectable levels (not enough HIV in their bloodstream for a test to measure), that person cannot sexually transmit HIV to a partner who is HIV-negative. But you cannot get the health care and treatment you need if you do not know your HIV status (whether you are living with HIV or HIV-negative). Being uninformed of your circumstance additionally implies you could pass HIV to others without knowing it. For ladies who intend to become pregnant, testing is particularly important. On the off chance that a lady is living with HIV, medicinal care and certain medications given amid pregnancy can bring down the possibility of passing HIV to her infant. For more data, see our reality sheet on Pregnancy and HIV.

It was first noticed in the USA in 1981. The American and French scientist independently identified the AIDS virus 1984. The virus first named as HCLV III ( Human cell leukemia virus III). The name (Human cell leukemia deficiency virus) is now preferred. It now seems that HIV first passed into a human from chimpanzees by eating butchered chimps. 10% of the people, who get AIDS virus infection, actually develop full-blown AIDS.

Causes of AIDS

The leading causes of AIDS is a disorder of cell-mediated immune system of the body. The disease is characterized by a reduction in the number of helpers. T-cell which stimulates antibody production by B-cells. This result in the loss of natural defense against viral infection.

Transmission of AIDS Virus

It is only transmitted by a direct contact of infected cells – containing blood of patient to the blood of a healthy person as in –

1) Sexual intercourse with an infected partner if there is tissue injury to permit blood contact.

2) Use of contaminated needles and syringes to inject drugs or vaccines.

3) Use of contaminated razors, needles for boring pinnae.

4) Transmission of infected blood or blood product.

5) Organ transplant.

6) Artificial insemination.

7) Parturition from mother to baby due to rupturing of blood vessels.

 

 

Note The sexual of transmission account for over 75% of infections.

AIDS is not a contagious disease. It does not spread by casual contacts, such as the handshake, body contact in crowded places, working or playing together, sharing clothes, eating food cooked by an infected person, using same toilet, swimming pools. It is also not, and ribavirin seems most promising. A drug named side quinidine prolongs the life of many AIDS patient. However, some patients AIDS virus have already mutated to zidovudine-resistant forms.However, a few patients AIDS virus have already mutated to zidovudine-resistant bureaucracy.

Introduction of aids virus

It is one hundred to a hundred and forty nm. In diameter and has a cylindrical middle. It is found in blood and semen and to a lesser quantity in milk tears and saliva. It is a retrovirus, i.E., its genetic material is – RNA (unmarried-stranded linear) that can make a DNA copy of itself with the assist of the opposite transcriptase enzyme. The virus bind especially to a surface receptor on a helper T-cell and introduce its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cells hereabouts it multiplies and the discharge of latest virus destroys the cellular. AIDS happens when the helper T-cellular falls too low to fight the ailment.

Screening Test of AIDS

AIDS Patient have circulating antibodies which can be detected. In many nations this take a look at is performed as a ordinary on blood, donor, screening can also prove harmful to victims. Persons located to be HIV advantageous emerge as depressed and suicidal and are denied coverage, evicted from their homes, fired from their jobs simplest a small minority of such individuals are probably to broaden complete-blown AIDS. However, the inflamed men and women can also unfold the infection to others.

Today ‘ELISA’ take a look at is executed pick out this pandemic disorder (AIDS).

Manifestation of AIDS

Manifestation:- It can manifest in two major ways –

i) Maligent tumours in connective tissue

ii) Viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal-fiction of any system of the body. There is the destruction of WBC’S, damage to the brain, Unexplained fever, unexplained loss of appetite, unexplained loss weight over a short time, chronic diarrhea, cough, night sweats, enlargement of lymph glands, shortness of breath, weakness.

AIDS Treatment:- Medical treatment of AIDS consists of :

i) Antiviral therapy against the causative agent

ii) Immuno simulative therapy to increase the number of resistance – providing cells in the body or both.However, no specific remedy has been found to date and the mortality form AIDS is honestly 100%. A sufferer of complete-blown AIDS dies with in three years from infection of many pills attempted, azidothymidine transmitted by means of blood-sucking insects together with mosquitoes, AIDS virus has been found in urine, tears saliva, breast milk and vaginal secretions, however appears no longer to transmitted with the aid of those fluids until it gets a cut.

Prevention from AIDS

Following steps may additionally help in controlling this dreaded sickness.

I) People specially the ones within the excessive-chance group ought to be knowledgeable approximately AIDS transmission.

Ii) A excessive-hazard organization need to chorus from blood donation.

iii) Disposable needles and syringes should be used.

iv) Sexual habits should change immediately.

v) Before receiving blood, ensure that it has been screened for HIV.

vi) Routine screening may be done in

a) Blood Donors,

b) Organ Donors

c) Donors of semen and growth hormone,

d) Patient receiving hemodialysis

e) Females in the high-risk group, Who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy.

Chastity, life long monogamy, and a clean needle for each injection are the only ways to prevents the spread of AIDS. This measure will succeed only in persons not already infected.
Major causes & steps to prevent it

Reasons for spreading AIDS among world people

More than 90% of the infected persons belong to developing countries.

REASONS:-

(i) Low-level of socio-economic development.

(ii) Low health consciousness and facilities

(iii) A growing unmarried youth population due to delayed marriage

(iv) The high rate of labor migration.

(v) Low level of literacy among high-risk groups.

(vi)High incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections among men and women.
Steps were taken to prevent the spreading of AIDS :

(i) National AIDS programme of South East Asian countries is beginning to yield encouraging results. The 100% condom use programme in Thailand and the Sonagachi project in Calcutta, a model peer education programme among sex workers, have helped bring down AIDS infection and also reduced the incidence of STD.

(ii) Non-government organizations have brought Baptist interest litigations against such cases of discrimination and the courts have pronounced the rights of such peoples. This has helped alleviate the misery of affected persons.

Observation

AIDS immersed in pandemic disease. It is nondurable. It is more common in developing countries. Now every day 1000 peoples are going to become HIV infected in the world. This is mainly due to blood transfusion & Sexual contact. In the whole world about three crore 30 lakhs people are HIV +ve & in India, 3 lakh 70 thousand are HIV +ve. The number of HIV +ve persons are higher in Tamilnadu Bombay, Calcutta and Kerala, and Manipur.

Problems for Patient

AIDS cause disease of Immune system of a body. The HIV cause damage to T & B cell. Thus this is becoming a threatening problem for today and future.

Hypothesis

AIDS is noncurable due to its nature of pathogen. It also damages immune system of the body. Therefore any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not effective against HIV. Ignorance and lack of knowledge about this disease is the cause of the broad spread of this disease.

Is There a Vaccine or Cure for HIV?

There is neither a vaccine nor a treatment for HIV. The nice manner to save you HIV is to use constant prevention strategies, consisting of more secure sex (deciding on low- or no-danger sports, using condoms, taking HIV pills in case you are dwelling with HIV, or PrEP in case you are HIV-terrible), and the use of sterile needles (for pills, hormones or tattoos). For extra records, see our reality sheet on HIV Vaccines.

Conclusion

After analyzing the reason and effects of ‘AIDS’ from one of a kind views, we conclude that it’s far a deadly disease sickness. It is specifically spreading sexually and person of the age institution of 25-45 years are the most affected group. There are a few methods like ‘Antiviral Therapy’ and Immuno Stimulative therapy which deliver some wish that even then no particular remedy has been found so concerning and morality shape is certainly one hundred%. So most effective prevention in the test medicinal drug care.

 

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