Project on Cancer Disease
Introduction on Caner
Cancer is a disease of the cells in the body. There are many different types of cell in the body, and many kinds of cancer which arise from various types of cell. Cancer is not just one disease, but a large group of almost Hundred diseases. It is a genetic disease, with two main characteristics of uncontrolled growth of the cells in the human body and the ability of those cells to migrate from the original site and spread to distant places.
Cancer is well-known diseases that appropriately affect humans. Every year, around Ten million people, die due to cancer globally.
However, there are often significant differences between different types of cancer. Out of which detailed below,
• Some grow and spread more quickly than others.
• Some are easier to treat than others, mainly if diagnosed at an early stage.
Types of Cancer
Our human’s body, cell differentiation, and proliferation are highly manipulated and regularized by cell division mechanism. Normal cells prevent the uncontrolled growth of specific property which is called contact inhibition. A breakdown of this cell cycle mechanism in healthy cells leads to the formation of cancer cells. As a result, tumors then formed.
Benign tumors – Non-cancerous (Benign) tumors
Benign tumors – These tumors do not spread to the other parts of the body. Non-cancerous tumors or
Benign tumors grow slowly. They are not cancerous and are not usually life-threatening. They often do not harm if they are left alone. Benign tumors that arise from cells in hormone glands can make too much hormone, which can cause unwanted effects.
Malignant tumors- Cancerous (Malignant) tumours
These tumors proliferate and spread to other healthy tissues of the body. This property is called as metastasis and invade into nearby tissues and organs, which can cause damage. Tumours usually develop in one original site – the primary tumor. Malignant neoplasms may also spread to other parts of the body to form secondary tumors.
Example: Breast cancer. It is a type of cancer commonly found in females. It develops from the breast tissues.
Since the occurrence of cancer increases as people age, most cases are seen in adults, middle-aged or older. The most common cancers are skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer (in women), and prostate cancer (in men). Also, cancer of the kidneys, ovaries, uterus, pancreas, bladder, rectum, blood (leukemia ), and lymph nodes (lymphoma) are commonly infected to us.
Causes of Cancer
Each cancer started with its abnormal cell. Many factors are involved in the causes of disease like:
- Tobacco. Eighty to ninety percent of lung cancer cases occur in smokers. Smoking has also been shown to be a contributory factor in cancers of the upper respiratory tract, esophagus, larynx, bladder, pancreas, and probably liver, stomach, breast, and kidney, as well. Recently, scientists have also shown that second-hand smoke (or passive smoking) can increase one’s risk of developing cancer. Tobacco or cigarette smoke (contains at least 66 known potential carcinogenic chemicals and toxins), asbestos, and antitoxin.
- Alcohol. Unnecessary consumption of alcohol may generate risk factor for certain cancers, such as liver cancer. Alcohol must increase the chances that an individual will develop mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophageal cancers.
- Diet. Thirty-five percent of all cancers are estimated to be due to dietary causes. In more quantity of food may be caused by cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, prostate, gallbladder, ovaries, and uterus.
- Sexual and reproductive behavior. The human papillomavirus, which is sexually transmitted, has been implicated in causing cancer of the cervix. Also, it has also identified that women who have not had children or have children late in life have an increased risk of both ovarian and breast cancer.
- Infectious agents. In the last 20 years, scientists have obtained evidence to estimate that 15% of the world’s cancer deaths may become traceable to viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
- Uranium, radon, ultraviolet rays from sunlight, pollution from alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray.
- Genetics: Some specific cancers have been linked to human genes and are as follows: breast, ovarian, correctional, prostate, skin and melanoma above factors are called carcinogens.
How is cancer diagnosed?
You may develop symptoms such as a lump, weight loss or loss of appetite. The signs for each type of cancer vary according to the type of cancer. For example, lung cancer may present with a cough and bowel cancer may present with blood in the stool.
Due to a specific reason that we did not consider the Cancer are also cancers which will be picked up for routine testing called ‘screening.’ Examples of this include mammograms looking for breast cancer and home stool screening for bowel cancer.
Based on how you present, further tests will usually be necessary. It may include scans and take a sample of cancer and analyze it in the laboratory (biopsy).
The detection and diagnosis of cancer are essential before it spreads to other parts of the body. Identification of cancer genes is very valuable to prevent disease.
Treatment of Cancer
Commonly, three types of treatment are available for cancer.
1. Surgery – operative removal of the tumor.
2. Chemotherapy. Drugs can use alone or in various combinations. Read more about chemotherapy. Use of anti-cancer medicines to kill cancer cells, or to stop them from dividing.
3. Radiotherapy which is the best solution for kill cancer cells, or prevents them multiplying. Read more about radiation.
- Stop & almost stop smoking.
- Do not drinking alcohol excessively.
- Exercising regularly, at least 20 minutes per day, preferably outdoors in the fresh air.
- Avoiding exposure to radiation.
- Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals in food, the home, and workplace,
- Maintaining proper body weight, particularly avoiding obesity.
- Protecting the skin from overexposure to sunlight.
- Eating a healthy diet. Reducing the intake of fat, avoiding hydrogenated vegetable oils and drinking filtered.
- Striving to maintain sound mental and emotional health is believed to help prevent cancer.
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