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Human Diseases Project

DISEASES

A disease is a condition of the body which functions are disturbed or disarranged. Infections may also define as morphological, physiological, psychological disturbance in the body caused by some external agencies which may be the non-parasitic, For Example, deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitically caused by causes, bacteria, fungi, etc. The term disease means DISEASE or discomfort. In short, it can be established as ‘diseases is a disorder of body.’

Beginnings OF DISEASES

Diseases can be started in human body due to the influence of some factor may be given below,

1. Air: It is a reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like measles, mumps, tuberculosis, diphtheria, etc.
2. Water and Food: These are storage of pathogens of many diseases like cholera, polio, typhoid, roundworm, tapeworm, etc.
3. Soil: Soil may be storage of the pathogen of tetanus diseases.
4. Animals: They do not suffer from the disorders so are also called reservoir host.These are those living organisms which spread the pathogens from an infected person to a healthy person.

 

STANDARDS OF DISEASES

Diseases are classified into two categories:

1. CONGENITAL DISEASES
This type of Diseases manifest considering birth and are caused due to defective development of inheritance, e.g., Eyes Weakness, congenital heart diseases, hemophilia, color blindness.

2. ACQUIRED DISEASES

This type of Diseases developed after birth. They are further classified as-
a) Communicable diseases
b) Non-Communicable diseases

Differences between Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases

S.No. Communicable diseases S.No. Non-communicable diseases

    1.

The diseases which spread from one person to another. 1. The diseases which are not transmitted from one person to another.
      2. They are caused by pathogens, e.g. malaria, smallpox etc. 2. They are caused by deficiency of nutrients, allergy, abnormal proliferation of cells etc. e.g. kwashiorkor, cancer etc.

MEDIUM OF TRANSMISSION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

The diseases are transmitted from the reserves of infection to the healthy persons the following ways:

1) Direct transmission: The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person directly without an intermediate agent. It occurs in following directions-
a) Contact with an infected person, e.g., smallpox and chicken pox.
b) Contact with soil, e.g., tetanus.

2. Indirect transmission: The diseases may occur due to pathogens through intermediate agents. It occurs in following ways:
a) Airborne diseases.
b) By unclean hands and fingers.

VIRAL DISEASES

INFLUENZA

It is commonly known as “Flu” and is highly infectious. It is frequently produced by the influenza virus.

Mode of transmission: through direct contact, sneezing, coughing, etc. (airborne diseases).

Symptoms: It affects upper respiratory tract.
It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, coughing and pain all over the body with restlessness.

Control:
Antibiotics should be given to prevent secondary complications like pneumonia and ear infections.
No vaccine is available which can protect against all types of influenza viruses.

Prevention:
The patient should avoid joining parties or gatherings of people.
Handkerchief should be used while sneezing and coughing.

JAUNDICE

Jaundice is yellowness of sclera of eyes and skin. Yellowness is due to excessive deposition of bile pigments in these structures.

Jaundice is caused by the hepatitis virus. The liver is the essential organ in the body caused its inflammation due to disease affects digestion adversely. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis-A, B, C, D, E or G.
Modes of transmission:
Hepatitis A is spread mostly by contaminated food and water.
Hepatitis B is transmitted by contact with infected body secretions and blood.

Symptoms:
Fever and loss of appetite.
Nausea and vomiting.
Yellowness of skin.
Dark yellow colored urine and light-colored stool after 3 to 10 days.

Control:
Adequate bed rest.
The carbohydrate-rich diet should be given to the patient.
Consumption of protein and fat should be limited.
Interferon injection should be administered on the advice of the doctor.

Prevention:

Eating healthful food and drinking disinfected water.

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A vaccine should be taken to prevent the diseases.

Use of disposable syringes and blood should be tested before transfusion.
Properly clean hands after handling bed and utensils of the patient.

 

RABIES

Rabies a fatal viral disease that conveyed to human beings by the bite of rabid dog or cat.

Symptoms: It characterized by high fever and painful contraction of muscles of throat and chest. The patient feels restless, has choking feet and finds difficulty in taking even liquid food. He is afraid of water, so-called hydrophobia. Rabies is 100% fatal disease

The virus destroys the brain and spinal cord. Thus, it causes paralysis and painful death.

Prevention:
Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should done. Pet dogs should prevent with the anti-rabies vaccine.
The rabid animal should be killed if it shows excessive salivation and tries seeking isolation.

Control: There is no treatment until now.

 

AIDS

Aids stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Caused by its disease due to HIV (Human immune-deficiency virus). Firm time of its exposure in June 1981 in the USA. This virus weakness the human body’s immunity or self-defense mechanism. Hence the aids virus reduces the natural protection of the human body; therefore, the body saving AIDS becomes prone to many other infections.

Modes of transmission:

  1.  It spreads through sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus.
  2.  It spread through the transfusion of blood infected with AIDS virus.
  3.  It spread through the use of contaminated needles for injections, blade or razors and other equipment of barbers.
  4. The children of AIDS infected mother get this disease from mother’s blood.

Symptoms: The critical signs are-

  1. Severe brain damage which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and think.
  2. Swollen lymph nodes.
  3. Decreased count of blood platelets causing hemorrhage.
  4. AIDS patient also becomes more susceptible to infections of anybody.

Prevention: No satisfactory vaccine is yet available. So, we can prevent AIDS only preventive measures.

  1. Use of disposable syringes.
  2. Using condoms and adopt clean sex habits.
  3. People should educate about AIDS.
  4. The blood test must do in a pregnant woman, blood donor’s organ donors.
  5. Dentists should use the sterilized instrument.
  6. The ordinary razor at the barber shop should apply.

Control: Current treatment options for HIV-positive children are insufficient, as little investment has been made to ensure the safety and efficacy of antivirals in treating to develop child-appropriate formulations. Improved first-line therapy for children under three years of age would ideally be safe, secure to administer, well-tolerated and palatable, heat-stable, readily dispersal, and dosed once daily or less. It must also carry minimal risk for developing resistance, be compatible with drugs against tuberculosis, and affordable.

 

BACTERIAL DISEASES

CHOLERA

CHOLERA: It is highly communicable diseases caused by vibrio-cholera it is common during fairs and after floods. Sometimes it may occur in epidemic form.
Modes of transmission: It transmitted through contaminated food and water flies it is spread very quickly when sanitation is poor.

Symptoms: Its definition undergoes the following points,
Rice watery stool, which is painless.
Rapid loss of a significant amount of water from the body, which causes dehydrates muscular cramps and weight loss.
Repeated effortless vomiting without nausea.
Due to excessive loss of water, the eye becomes sunken, cheeks hollow subnet temperature, etc.

Prevention:
Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must disinfect with a robust chlorine solution.
Undercover destruction of human faces.
Cholera vaccine should be given during epidemics and fairs. Vaccine immunity for about six months.

Control:
Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)- in which fluid and electrolytes (NaCl- 3.5g, Sodium bicarbonate -2.5g, KCL-1.5g, Glucose- 20.0g, Sucrose-40g in one liter of water) are given to patient orally (through the mouth).This solution helps in preventing dehydration.
The saline drip may be given intravenously.
Use ant cholera drugs.
The doctor should be consulted immediately.

DIARRHEA

DIARRHEA: Diarrheas is a group of infection of the intestinal tract, including food poisoning. The primary pathogens are bacteria such as Escherichia coil, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. A protozoan Giardia and certain viruses also can cause similar conditions.

Modes of transmission:
Contaminated food and water.
Disease through fingers, cloths bed sheets and utensils.

Symptoms:
Frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus.
Abdominal resorts, vomiting leading to dehydration.
Due to rapid loss of water (dehydration), eyes appear sunken, cheeks hollow; the inner sides of cheeks appear dry, sudden loss of weight, fever, deep breathing, etc.

Prevention:
Proper personal hygiene and community hygiene.
Use of boiled water and adequate cooking of food.  The drinking water must be disinfected with a robust chlorine solution.
Adequate coverage for eatables to prevent contamination.
Underground disposal of human faces.

Control:
Complete bed rest.
The pulp of unripe banana along with the amount of turmeric powder, salt, and lime, also helps in controlling diarrhea.
Oral rehydration therapy or Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS).
The saline drip to be given.
Isabgol should be presented with curd or water, to provide relief.
Antibiotics can treat the diseases.

TYPHOID

TYPHOID: Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhoid bacteria, commonly found in interterm of man. It is most common communicable diseases. This is common is age group of 1-15 years. Every year about 2.5 million people suffer from typhoid.
Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water and house flies.

Symptoms: It is defined by
A headache and rise in body temperature.
Tumors of the intestinal mucosa.
Diarrhea which becomes hemorrhagic.
Rose colored rash on the upper abdomen.

Prevention:
Underground disposal of human faces.
Disinfection of water and proper cooking of food.
Typhoral oral vaccines also prevent typhoid.
TAB- Vaccine provides immunity for three years.
Widal test diagnoses typhoid.

Control: Antibiotics can treat the diseases.

PROTOZOAN DISEASES

MALARIA

MALARIA: It estimated that about 300 million people are infected with malaria every year, and more than 2 million people die annually due to this diseases. Malaria is more common in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in Africa and Asia.

Causes: Malaria caused by the toxins produced in the human body by the malarial parasite Plasmodium. Presence of malarial parasite checked by a blood test.

Modes of transmission: Transmitted from person to person by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite.

Symptoms: Malaria begins as a flu-like illness 8-30 days after infection. Symptoms include fever (with or without other signs or symptoms such as a headache, muscular aches and weakness, vomiting, diarrhea). Typical cycles of temperature, shaking chills, and drenching sweats may then develop. Death may be due to brain damage (cerebral malaria), or damage to vital organs.
Cold stage- Characterized by chilling and shivering.
Hot scene- Characterized by high fever, faster rate of breathing and heartbeat, etc.
After the malaria attack, the patient feels weak, exhausted and anemic.

Prevention:
Use of insect repellents to prevent mosquito bite.
Patients in malaria-endemic countries need inexpensive, efficacious, and field-adapted drugs. Wire- gauziness of doors, windows, etc. to check the entry of mosquitoes.
Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.D.T and B.H.C.
All the mosquito breeding places should be destroyed or covered. Kerosene oil should be sprayed on ponds and ditches to kill the larva.
Use mosquito nets.
Destroying breeding places of mosquitoes.

Control: Some anti-malarial drugs are available. The most frequent anti-malarial drug is quinine. Efforts are medicine for the development of an anti-malarial vaccine.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISEASES

 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  DIGESTIVE SYSTEM  ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  EXCRETORY SYSTEM  IMMUNE SYSTEM
Anemia
Acid reflux
Goiter
Bladder cancer
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Aneurysm
Appendicitis
Addison’s disease
Bladder stones
HIV/AIDS
Atherosclerosis/Arteriosclerosis
Cirrhosis
Type 1 Diabetes
Eczema
Lyme disease
Hodgkin’s disease
Colon cancer
Type 2 Diabetes
Kidney stones
Mononucleosis
Hypertension
Crohn’s disease
Hypoglycemia
Nephritis
Leukemia
Hepatitis
Thyroid Cancer
Skin cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Ulcers
 MUSCULAR/SKELETAL SYSTEM  NERVOUS SYSTEM  REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Arthritis
Alzheimers
Breast Cancer
Asthma
Muscular Dystrophy
Meningitis
Cervical Cancer
Emphysema
Osteoporosis
Multiple sclerosis
Endometriosis
Influenza
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Parkinsons
Ovarian Cancer
Lung cancer
Scoliosis
Stroke
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Throat canc
Prostate Cancer
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Testicular Cancer

 

 

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Human Diseases Project DISEASES A disease is a condition of the body which functions are disturbed or disarranged. Infections may also define as morphological, physiological, psychological disturbance in the body caused by some external agencies which may be the non-parasitic, For Example, deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitically caused by causes, bacteria, fungi, etc. […]

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