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Running Gearing

Synopsis

Running gearing is a new type of device designed to change continuous motion into rotary motion. The term “running gearing” is only a temporary name given to the mechanism and the tool has not yet signified given its specific name.

The jogging gearing developed by way of Mr V.A.Vorgushin, an engineer, an M.T.S. In co-authorship among Mr P.A., Shishkin, as an engineer.

The technology of a running gearing makes it possible to withdraw from an engine its main component – a crank mechanism and to improve the engine’s parameters.

The technology of the running gear can apply to all formerly manufactured engines, equipped with crank mechanisms. Both modernization of the available stock of engines and realization of new projects may become a very profitable business for some years.

THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE RUNNING GEARING

The arrangement of the engine is shown in figure-1. The running gearing is made up of toothed gear one seated on the engine shaft and being in constant mesh with gear frame 2. The second no. of Gear frame is shaped consisting of two racks of equal length and two toothed semicircles of equal radii. By this alternative, the gear frame signifies connected to piston 3 of cylinder block five via a motion unit of the Z axis.

For fixing of the extreme left and the extreme right positions of gear frame 2 (fixing of L dimension as per fig.), the device remains implemented with a mechanism of dynamic fixing (not shown in fig.1).

 

A mechanism of dynamic fixing is the cam-type. It comprises a cam itself and two extended rests. The working face of the cam represents an arc of the sector of a circle. The cam and toothed gear one are seated on the axis of rotation of the shaft, and they are stationary relative to each other. Linear rests are fixed along the gear racks; working faces of long rests are the surfaces facing the axis of symmetry of the gear frame.

 

COMPARISON WITH CRANK-ENGINE

Comparison of the conventional crank engine and running gearing engine with the can divide into four categories. There details as below

1. Kinematics.

2. Gas dynamics.

3. Dimension and mass.

4. Production cost

GAS DYNAMICS

An in-depth upward push inside the piston speed up to the maximum fee on the preliminary stroke creates top conditions for using the air glide inertia and for developing of a dynamic charging effect of the cylinder because of the better discharging in the front of the piston backside transferring away fastly. Since the flow rate in an inlet pipeline is proportional to the piston pace – the degree of charging will increase with the upward thrust of revolutions, ensuring an extensive growth in the strength. On the alternative hand, this belonging ought to improve the engine throttle characteristics by reducing the specified range by turning of a throttle gate.

The extent of engine throttling will decrease. The factor of electric charging and the element of reduction in the degree of throttling will increase the efficiency of the unit in all modes. The gain in power, in this case, does not require the availability of options (a turbine and a compressor).

When estimating the velocity variations before and after the upper dead centre, it can be noted, that the piston velocity in a running gearing engine changes much more intensively than in a typical engine with a crank mechanism. This condition should have a beneficial effect on the antiknocking resistance of the operation process. A rise in velocities near UDC means an adequate reduction of the duration of the piston stay in the zone of the compression ratio limiting values and this in its turn reduces the probability of knocking and smoothes off the consequences of its manifestation.

It is observed that with the decrease in a scale factor, i.?. With the reduction of time intervals of the cycle, a tendency to knocking is fastly diminishing and starting from a certain value of similarity parameters it vanishes, even for very high degrees of compression. All the preceding arguments considered we anticipate high anti-knock properties of running gearing engines, which will allow them to burn safely the lowest octane gasoline brands.

Based on the kinematic properties of a running gearing which are manifested in redistribution of velocities over the piston stroke, a conclusion can be reached that losses for the cooling system are reduced. It has signified known that in other equal conditions, the amount of heat passing through the unit of the wall area is proportional to the time of the gases contact.

Graphs of piston velocities (fig.2) show that in the region of the highest temperatures of the cycle (the 1-st quarter of the expansion stroke) piston velocities of running gearing engines considerably exceed those of crank mechanism engines. Consequently, the contact time of gases for each elementary segment of the travel is significantly lower. It is evident from the calculations that losses for the cooling system are reduced by 1,5-1,6 times.

Here is essential to remark on a gas circulation system. If for four-stroke running gearing engines the gas distribution system differ not at all from the standard type, but, regretfully, for two-stroke engines, the use of a running gearing scheme brings about a need for increasing by 40-50% the stroke portion, being assigned for outlet and inlet ports. In that case, it caused by the adverse effect of the high piston velocity near LDC on the time-section of gas distribution ports.

A need for a significant portion of waste stroke for the gas distribution ports impedes the selection of optimum parameters of a running gearing as S/D cylinder ratio will be increased.

The mentioned disadvantages make a four-stroke cycle more advantageous for a running gearing engine.

 

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